Saturday, 17 October 2020

Unconscious Bias & Subtle Acts of Exclusion

This weeks meeting took the form of another hybrid meeting, with some members at the Parkview Golf Club and others online.  Our Guest Speaker was Bridget Von Holdt, Business Director at BCW Africa.  Bridget's experience in Public Relations spans over 30 years, and she is known for her vision to see beyond the conventional in the communications industry.

Bridget von Holdt (Source Facebook)

Bridget gave a fascinating talk on Unconscious Bias in our lives.  Unconscious Bias influences our decisions and behavior in ways so subtle that they completely escape our notice.  It affects our implicit attitudes, action or decisions. It causes an automatic evaluation without being aware.  It is a product of culture, family influence or experience, and these manifest themselves as micro-behaviors.

To counter unconscious bias, you need to be intentional about disrupting bias.  This involves giving yourself more time for decision making, question your first impression and check if it is based on assumptions.  It is important to create a culture of calling out bias by empowering others to call it out.  

With the background of our history it is important to be conscious of various terms - privilege, prejudice and power in our society.  "Equality is giving everyone a shoe.  Equity is giving everyone a shoe that fits".

Two interesting case studies where bias showed up in marketing and communications materials were demonstrated - H&M's "Coolest monkey in the jungle" sweatshirt ad and the recent Tresemme Hair product campaign.

It is important that each of us examine our own bias in various areas of our lives; be they Internal, External, Cultural or Organisational.  

New Dawn members practising social distancing

On Saturday, 10th October, we were all invited to the Baby Shower for Hannes and Katya Dressler at their lovely new home in Westcliff.  Below the cot filled with gifts for the coming baby.

What should have been a tea and snacks afternoon, turned into a social braai where the usual New Dawn vibe was very much evident!

Part of the happy gathering on the "stoep with view"

Strategic Plan - Please note that Julian has requested feedback on the Strategic Plan that was sent out to members.  Please email any comments or suggestions.

Speaker for next week will be the Corporate Social Investment Manager from Hollard, Lynette van Vreden.  

Quote for the week:  "Words are things.  You must be careful about calling people out of their names .... Someday we'll be able to measure the power of words.  I think they are things.  They get on the walls.  They get in your wallpaper.  They get in your rugs, in your upholstery, and your clothes, and finally into you." Maya Angelou: 1928 - 2014

Wednesday, 7 October 2020

First Hybrid Meeting a Success

The very first New Dawn hybrid meeting was a success with only a few minor technical glitches, another step in the direction of what is commonly being termed the "new normal". Thanks to Hannes Dressler and his IT team from SAP we could all hear and see each other whether physically present at the Parkview Golf Club or on zoom.

There were eleven of us on zoom and thirteen members at the club itself. 

                            Hannes Dressler and the magic camera that made the hybrid meeting possible

It was a business meeting with reports back from the board meeting on Monday evening. This centered in large part around around the theme of sustainable food production and the visit to Victoria Yards last Saturday, led by President Ian Widdop.

                                                President Ian Widdop speaking at Victoria Yards

President Ian also announced that Rotary International has agreed in principal to redirect the Covid-19 emergency District grant of $25 000. to a project yet to be finalised, but which will be about sustainable food production in some form. The request follows after the Hlanza Izandla taxi sanitisation project ground to a halt. A request has also been sent to Standard Bank that the remaining portion that they donated to the taxi project, also be redirected.

The Hlanza Izandla inter-club project team is meeting tomorrow to discuss the way forward and President Ian asked that more New Dawn members put their name forward to redress the balance, which at the moment tilts in favour of the Benoni Aurora club. Amina Frense immediately did so.

                                            Mama Refiloe Molefe, gardener extraordinaire of Bertrams

President Ian told the club about the Victoria Yards visit and their walk through the suburbs surrounding it to Mama Refiloe Molefe's Bertrams Inner City Farm of about a hectare under tunnels on ground that used to be a bowling club. The land belongs to the City of Johannesburg.

Hers is one of the more successful inner city gardens and she supplied many restaurants with fresh produce and juice mixtures before lockdown in March. Business seems to be picking up again, but over the past six months she turned her attention to a feeding scheme and estimates that she feeds about 250 children in the area per day.

                                    Lucille Blumberg amongst the luscious spinach in the Bertrams garden

The New Dawn members also engaged with members of the Johannesburg Inner City Partnership, amongst others, about the large number of gardens in and around the CBD, whether on rooftops or unused land. The tour by the New Dawn team was led by Thobile Chittenden, CEO of Makers Valley, which is a part of the Victoria Yards project.

It is for projects like this (and many others) that the club is looking for a major fundraising event or effort to try to raise the kind of money we need to go big.

        Helene Bramwell, Adele Dabbs, Errol Burman and Paul Channon at the first Parkview meeting since March 

There's a meeting of the fundraising committee on Tuesday, 10 November at 5 pm at Twickenham Guest House to map a way forward for future fundraising efforts. This is particularly important because the main annual fundraiser, our Golf Day, has been cancelled this year because of the uncertainties around the lockdown.

The plan is that there will be two golf days next year, one during the first quarter at Wanderers and the second one back to normal at Parkview in November.

The good news is that the festive dinner will go ahead on Friday, 4 December at Marks Park. We'll be going all out to maximise the event to make up for the missed opportunities with the cancellation of the bridge drive and now the golf day.

Tickets for the dinner have been lowered to R250 a head, which will mean an even greater effort will have to be made to raise significant funds.

                                                                    Bridget van Oerle

Speaker: The speaker next week is the publicist Bridget van Oerle of Buz Publicity, who also spoke to the club about three years ago. She'll be talking about unconscious bias in publicity/public relations in the light of the Clicks/Tre Semmé PR disaster of recent weeks.

Snippets: Rev. Nick Bell donated GBP100 (R2150) to the club in lieu of brags and said he and his wife are hoping to get to South Africa by the beginning of December. Quite a number of members have been donating brag and breakfast money regularly since lockdown started to keep the club coffers going. All members who cannot attend meetings, are urged to do the same.

Paul Channon announced that the Alexander Education Committee had raised R2,5 million in the past few months for their feeding scheme for scholarship families, to which New Dawn and associates from clubs all over the world contributed in excess of R150 000. 

Paul Kasango shared a photo of the new playground he managed to have installed in Alexandra. It was moved from Woodside Sanctuary to make space for a garden there.

A Thought for the Week: Understand this, I mean to arrive at the truth. The truth, however ugly in itself, is always curious and beautiful to seekers after it. - Agatha Christie (1890 - 1976)

Wednesday, 30 September 2020

DG Annemarie Shows the Way

Rotary opens many opportunities for many people in many places and in many forms; that was the message from DG Annemarie Mostert during the annual official District Governor's visit to Johannesburg New Dawn in an online meeting on Wednesday morning.

She was clearly aiming at inspiring the club and members to greater Rotary heights and, dare one say, likely succeeded!

Rotary Opens Opportunities is also the official Rotary theme for this presidential year of the RI president, Holger Knaack, who has said that the impact that Rotary has on the lives of Rotarians, but also on the world, is profound.

The DG was joined in the virtual visit by Alice Meyer, the new District Administrator and Executive Secretary.

                               DG Annemarie Mostert. The photo was "borrowed" from the D9400 website

DG Annemarie urged the club to continue on the path of diversity, saying that she has observed that those clubs that are growing, are the ones that have embraced diversity, not just of age and gender, "but across all cultural borders".

"Our biggest opportunity lies  is in embracing our differences."

She said Rotary, through its cultural exchange programmes, especially with the youth exchange schemes, is creating peace in the world by introducing young people to other cultures.

Rotary is also creating a younger generation of leaders, she said. She was struck by the presence of District Governors no older than about 35 during her training in San Diego in the USA. She urged clubs to consider younger members for leadership positions.

Once they've earned their stripes within a club, they should be encouraged to become AG's and eventually even DG.

She cited the End Polio campaign as the greatest gift we as Rotarians can give the world. Eradication from the face of the earth could still happen within our generation and the infrastructure created for polio vaccine programmes could possibly be used for rolling out any coronavirus vaccine to the world once it has been introduced.

It is important for clubs and Rotarians to find partnerships with other clubs here and overseas, on our travels when the world opens up again, but also in action groups and other interest groups within Rotary.

She praised New Dawn for having embraced innovation, diversity and fellowship, three cornerstones of the Rotary experience.

During the meeting AG Peter James-Smith handed over the official Platinum Citation from the RI President that New Dawn earned last year under the presidency of Judy Sligcher.

The meeting also saw the induction of Ronnie Kasrils, former struggle leader and cabinet minister in post-apartheid governments, as the latest member of the club.

                   President Ian Widdop enjoying the company of Monica Kiwanuka of the Jhb North Central club
                                   PDG Jankees Sligcher and Julian Nagy enjoying their pizza
                                           Graham and Joan Donet caught in mid-pizza

The matter of face-to-face meetings vs online was again brought up and will be discussed at the board meeting on Monday, but the indications are that the meeting on 7 October will be at the Parkview Golf Club (with all the necessary protocols in place) with virtual participation for those who still don't want to take too many chances or cannot attend for other reasons.

Although next Wednesday will be the first physical meeting since early March (if it does happen) many members and guests attended the Fifth Wednesday meeting at the Country Club Johannesburg last Wednesday for a pizza evening. Great fun was had by all present.

A Thought for the Week: The beginnings and endings of all human undertakings are untidy. - John Galsworthy (1867 - 1933)

Thursday, 17 September 2020

Sowing the Seeds of a New Project

The discussion that started with buying a few seeds after Joan Sainsbury introduced the club to Angel Network in June, culminated in a full-on zoom meeting last week with groups of urban gardeners (amongst other amazing work they do) to whom we supplied seeds.

The seeds, at R23 a pack of four (mainly beetroot, carrots, cabbage and onions) were a bargain and a great number of club members bought a supply to donate onwards.

                      The Parkhurst garden where vegetables are grown for people in need 

Some of the recipients were the Parkhurst Community Garden, the Brixton Community Centre, the Alexander Veggie Garden (near the Gautrain station) run by John Mahlangu of the Alexandra Football Association, Makers Valley and Coronacare.

Special visitors (and speakers) at the meeting were Ishmael Mkhabela, David van Niekerk and Anne Steffny of the Johannesburg Inner City Partnership, of which Makers Valley are a section, Thobile Chittenden and Siya Ndlangamandla of Makers Valley and Kim Harrisberg and Robyn Garruda of Coronacare.

In true Rotary networking style Helene Bramwell (Anne Steffny is a friend and client who knows the Makers Valley team) and Lucille Blumberg (Kim Harrisberg's father is a colleague) connected the club with the speakers who spoke to the club about their projects.

Each team got ten minutes or so to address us and there was a bit of time for a general discussion afterwards. One gets the feeling this will be nowhere near the end of that and related discussions.

                          One of the aims of the JICP

First up was David van Niekerk of the JICP (, who told the club in general what the organisation does (it focuses on a clean, safe and welcome inner city in partnership with, amongst others, the City of Johannesburg and more recently the Gauteng Province). He also spoke more particularly on projects such as inner city farms, help for the homeless, recycling projects and city tourism.

He took the club on a virtual tour of Johannesburg and showed a map of where all the farms are where food is grown to feed communities, many of them on rooftops in the CBD.

                      Spinach fresh from the earth and ready for the pot

Thobile Chittenden, who hosted a New Dawn group at Victoria Yards a few weeks ago, explained how the Victoria Yards owners had granted them space where they could set up an office and a bank of computers where prospective entrepreneurs can go and work on business proposals.

The idea is that once people have the means to get going, they stay in the area and invest in the community. A large part of this consists of feeding schemes with much of the food donated by Nandos, whose head office is a close neighbour.

                  A slide from the Makers Valley presentation. Top left is Meghan Markle during her visit there

Victoria Yards (, which is owned in partnership by the urban developer Brian Green, also responsible for the 44 Stanley complex in Richmond in the Auckland Park area, is an inspiring place to visit.

It consists of dozens of artisanal shops and businesses, for instance the coffee shop Foakes, whose Happy Sekanka sources his honey from local beekeepers and trains locals in baking skills in his spare time. Tshepo the Jeanmaker makes jeans and employs 30 local seamstresses, who made dungarees for Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's son, Archie. She was a recent visitor there as the British Council is a sponsor.

                    The Makers Valley team during our visit. Left is Thobile and right Siya

Siya is in charge of the gardens at Victoria Yards, which are lush and magnificent, but mainly overseas gardens in the community, teaching communities how to grow their own vegetables and other edibles. They have established many edible street gardens where people can help themselves in passing, but are now also promoting backyard gardening.

He's also looking into a truly sustainable garden in Joubert Park, an area that sorely needs it.

                        A screen shot of the Coronacare website                          

Kim Harrisberg, a journalist with Reuters, told how she and family and friends decided at the beginning of the lockdown in March to do something to help in  the community. This saw eight of them give birth to the organisation Coronacare (

They aim to connect people who have the money, time and the inclination to organisations who need their input and expertise. She says they have already helped 180 organisations in this way and estimate that they have provided and distributed up to 250 000 meals during lockdown. They aim to provide more sustainable help in the future and to move from providing food vouchers to more lasting urban farms.

Dates to Diarise: Next week (Wednesday, 23 September) is the social meeting at 6pm at the Country Club Johannesburg. The address is 1 Napier Road. If you're asked at the security entrance, say you're meeting with Carol Stier or Linda Vink, both whom are members. (Hannes Dressler is also a member.) Linda and I won't be there as we'll be in the Pilanesberg for the week, but all the arrangements have been made.

The Wednesday after (30 September) is a zoom meeting again and will be attended by DG Annemarie Mostert. She'll meet with the New Dawn board after the normal club meeting.

A Thought for the Week: Between saying and doing many a pair of shoes is worn out. - Iris Murdoch (1919 - 1999)

Monday, 14 September 2020

To Zoom or not to Zoom

After nearly six months of various stages of lockdown, things are slowly getting back to a more normal rhythm in the world out there, the world from which we have been sheltering ourselves in fear of contracting Covid-19.
     So it is with the world of Rotary too. Although meetings are still on zoom, the club has decided to have a social next Wednesday evening (23 September) in lieu of the usual fifth Wednesday social. The fifth Wednesday of September we'll be visited via zoom by DG Annemarie Mostert, which will be her official visit to the club.
     The board meeting this evening to further discuss the strategic plan, will be at Carol Stier's home in Parkview, so also face-to-face. The aim is to get the updated and revised strategic plan ready for the DG's visit.
The new covered veranda at the CCJ
     The social meeting will be on the new veranda of the Johannesburg Country Club in Auckland Park. When the plan was mooted last week nobody said they wouldn't attend, but it being a social evening, attendance is by choice.
     More regular face-to-face meetings at the Parkview Golf Club will be discussed again at the next board meeting (the first Monday evening of the month). Several suggestions of a mixture of zoom and physical meetings have been proposed.
     There seems to be a consensus that board meetings will be held on zoom and many members have said they'd prefer at least some of the regular meetings to remain on zoom.
     In advising on the possibility of a social meeting next Wednesday, Lucille Blumberg said new cases of the virus are definitely coming down, as are hospital admissions.
     Lucille said she avoids any contact with anybody for more than 15 minutes at a time, and always keeps a distance of at least a metre.
     The CCJ has advised that it follows full coronavirus protocol and that the wearing of masks is compulsory to all visitors.
The pizza menu at CCJ
     The idea is to have a pizza evening, starting at 6pm. A pizza typically costs about R60 to just over R100 and there is a bar available, so remember to bring cash and a mask.
     There's another deadline looming after Tony Reddy resigned as secretary of the club and withdrew his candidature to be the next president after Ian Widdop, due to business pressures.
     Tony is working on a project involving 19 African countries and feels he won't be able to give either positions enough attention to warrant staying on. He's definitely not leaving the club, he says.
     Joan Donet is filling in as temporary secretary and nominations for both posts must be in with her before the next board meeting on 5 October.
     The position of secretary is obviously more urgent, but a new president-elect will have to be in place by the very latest at the end of this year.
     Remember, in accordance with Rotary practices, you cannot put a name forward without clearing it with the person concerned. They have to be willing to accept a nomination before it can become official.
     The seed project, so brilliantly kicked off by Helene Bramwell, will be under discussion at the meeting on Wednesday. There will be four speakers telling us about their gardening projects and efforts in helping urban communities feed themselves. Don't miss it.
     A Thought for the Week: It is easy to sit up and take notice. What is difficult is getting up and taking action. - Honore de Balzac (1799 - 1850)

Monday, 7 September 2020

The State of the News is Terminal

There are people who say that asking whether newspapers will eventually vanish is like asking 65 million years ago whether dinosaurs would become extinct.

The answer is probably not quite as emphatic as a meteorite wiping out a whole world of living creatures, but there is no doubt that newspapers are in terminal trouble.

 This was one of the themes that President Ian Widdop brought up when he introduced the topic of mass communication for a club discussion at the meeting last week.

There is little doubt that 45 minutes was not long enough for what turned out to be a lively and layered debate on a topic that has vexed the media industry for the better part of two decades.

Newspapers, which once played a pre-eminent role in media, are in the firing line, losing readership to electronic media and advertising to social media, with attempts to turn the tide back in their favour with paywalls and a larger Internet presence, being only partial successful.

This is a far cry from circulations counting in the millions, readership in multiples of that and newspaper management meeting with cigarette and liquor company executives once a year to discuss solo advertisements on front pages over drinks in fancy restaurants.

The New York Times building in Manhattan, the world's best known newspaper

Ian quoted Mark Thomson, the outgoing British born CEO of the New York Times (one of the few remaining truly successful publications) as predicting the demise of newspapers in 20 years' time.

Word at Media24, the largest newspaper and magazine publisher in South Africa, is that that timeline is unlikely to be much longer than two years. Koos Bekker, now chairman of Naspers, the holding company, reportedly has referred to newspaper technology as "platgestampte boomstompe", or flattened tree stumps.

Thompson in an exit interview compared the the relationship between newspapers and their print editions to that between the Titanic and an iceberg.

The truth is that a publication once every 24 hours just doesn't cut it against live streaming news (TV) or on the conglomeration of thousands of websites all chasing breaking news and all being able to publish almost instantaneously.

A newspaper like the Sun in the UK, which not so long ago was selling more than 5 million copies a day, dropped to 1.2 million in February this year. No wonder that Rupert Murdoch has decided to stop publishing the circulation figures of his newspapers in the UK. His newspaper The Times of London, which has been going since 1785, has dropped to under 350 000 daily sales from a high of over 700 000. Interestingly, the combined print and online circulation is less that the highest daily sales were.

South Africa's two biggest Sunday newspapers, Rapport and Sunday Times

In South Africa Rapport, for example, once had an average circulation of 500 000 every Sunday. That has waned to under 100 000 and that was before the present lockdown. When I worked there it was battle to keep the circulation above 400 000. That battle has been emphatically lost.

The Sunday Times, which sold more than 500 000 copies a week for decades, fell to about 200 000 before the lockdown caused further carnage. Most South African newspapers didn't report circulation after March this year because of the havoc the lockdown has caused.

The attempt to boost sales figures with tabloids publishing mainly in the townships in South Africa was a spectacular success just after the turn of the century, with Daily Sun selling more than 500 000 copies a day and Sunday Sun almost 250 000. Daily Sun now sells less than 100 000 a day and Sunday Sun has been closed down.

It's hard to compete with a smart phone that fits in your pocket.

The FT website. Most major newspaper titles have a heavy presence on the Internet

With all due respect to print journalists all over the world, the best journalists are more and more opting for the internet, thankfully creating pockets of excellence, balanced reporting and thoughtful comment around titles such as the New York Times, Financial Times, Bloomberg, The Economist, The Wall Street Journal, the Washington Post, the Guardian, etc (note that the scales have tipped heavily in favour of financial and economic journalism. When I started out financial journalists were seconded from the ordinary newsroom because they could vaguely understand what was being said in company reports).

The nature of the internet also means people all over the world have access to the same news, in some ways a blessing and in others a danger. But at least you don't have to live in Manhattan, DC, London and a handful of other cities to have access to quality reporting.

Rather than agonise whether newspapers will last or not (they won't, at the very least not nearly in the dominant position they had until a decade or two ago), we should be asking whether journalism will last against the attacks of fake news and other forms of news manipulation.

It's a facile argument that right-wing thinking is responsible for this, because the whole ethos of political correctness and shouting down anybody who dares raise an opposing view, is just as damaging. We all long for the days of balanced reporting, giving the reader enough information to make up their own mind.

You only have to think about the state capture reporting of the past few years to realise how critically important the dissemination of reliable news is.

I'll be reading all about it in the flattened tree stumps (augmented by online sources) until the day I die ... or the day my favourite newspapers finally die.

One of the gardens at Victoria Yards 

And in other news

There's a board meeting tonight and a business meeting on Wednesday. 

On Wednesday 16th September we'll be hearing more about the seeds project that the club undertook during the darker days of lockdown, and from the people who received them.

The speakers are Siya Ndlangamandla and Thobile Chittenden of Makers Valley at Victoria Yards, Kim Harrisberg of the Reuters Foundation and Anne Steffny of Inner City Projects

The meeting of 23 September will be an evening social meeting, but at the time of writing the decision to do it online or face to face was still pending.

The meeting on 30 September marks the visit of the DG, Annemarie Mostert. She has said she'd prefer an online meeting.

A Thought for the Week: To a philosopher all news, as it is called, is gossip, and they who edit and read it are old women over their tea. - Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 1862)

Monday, 31 August 2020

There's a Spring in Our Step

Spring is all about renewal after the hardships of winter and a fitting turning of the season in the southern hemisphere this year, signalling a change and opening up after the harsh lockdown conditions of the past five months.

Well, not quite time for a complete change, according to Prof. Lucille Blumberg, our in-house specialist on all things virus related, especially Covid-19.

She advised that the club sits tight for another few weeks and only contemplates meeting in person towards the middle of September to the beginning of October again.

There will obviously be a discussion about when the best date is, but the club is already planning a joint talk on the seeds project for the meeting on 16 September, which could well be an opportunity to meet in person again.

The Parkview golf course in summer

The Parkview Golf Club has given assurances that they're ready for any event involving less than 50 people regarding social distancing, enforcing the wearing of masks, sanitising and other measures. The possibility of live streaming meetings for those who don't want to venture from their lockdown homes yet, is also being investigated.

The Rotary year is slipping by and so many things have been put on hold that Spring seems like an ideal opportunity to get going again. What we do now, will hopefully bear fruit later or, in the words of Walter Scott (1771 - 1832): Unless a tree has born blossoms in spring, you will vainly look for fruit on it in autumn.

The trees that we need to bear fruit are of course mainly to do with fund raising. Two of our major fund raising events are looming: the annual Golf Day and the annual Festive Dinner.

We've managed to get a later date for the Golf Day, namely Friday, 27 November at the Parkview Golf Club.

The golf day that Mike MacDonald had arranged for earlier in the year to help a young black golfer, had to be cancelled due to to lockdown and the plan is now to combine the two, hopefully with an expanded field of players.

Andy Ostle of the SAGDB and Mike MacDonald at the meeting in February

Andy Ostle of the SA Golf Development Board told the club in February that the 12-year-old youngster, Eric, is already playing provincial golf against children much older than himself and that the SAGDB was trying to raise money to help educate him and further his career.

The Golf Day is unfortunately just a week before the Festive Dinner, provisionally booked for Friday, 4 December at Marks Park. Diarise those two dates, as the club as a whole is going to have to put in a major effort to make both a success. It's not ideal to have them so close together, but still far better than having to cancel either of the two.

Both these dates naturally depend on the situation with the coronavirus at the time and the circumstances based on lockdown levels and other regulations.

Pat Dixon on zoom

The speaker at the meeting last week was Pat Dixon, who told the club about her new career as a life coach and what life coaching entails. Pat is an Englishwoman who came to South Africa in 1981. After being retrenched from the catering company Fedics (where she met Graham Donet) she trained as a coach. She specialises in transition coaching and retirement issues.

She and her husband, Peter, have a daughter and son, who is a professional county cricketer in the UK.

She spoke about the impact that Covid-19 is having on a large number of people, not only regarding health and welfare, but also in terms of retrenchments, job loss and loss of business and about resetting your goals to overcome the negative effects.

Pat owns a company, Your Time is Now, and left her contact details for any members if they wanted to speak to her (website:, email:, cell: 082 776 5963).

At the meeting on Wednesday President Ian Widdop will be leading a discussion on the state and future of mass media in these times of investigative journalism, social media and mad coronavirus theories. He's asked the five members in the club who either work or have worked as journalists  (Carol Stier, Christoph Plate, Amina Frense, Jenine Coetzer and myself) and of course any other members, to contribute to a discussion. It's bound to be a lively debate, so make sure you're there.

A Thought for the Week: Let us be grateful to the mirror for revealing to us our appearance only. - Samuel Butler (1835 - 1902)